Mark Grossmann: The “Air Shark” – The Tigerfish Flies & The Fish’s “Choice”

24 January 2014

Africa’s Tigerfish was caught jumping out of the water . . . into the air . . . catching a bird . . .  in flight . . . and taking it home for dinner.

[video] tigerfish dining alfresco

It’s bad enough that sea creatures can attack us when we go into the water.  About 40 years ago, the film, Jaws, scared movie-goers to the point that people stopped going to beaches for fear of being attacked by sharks — but only if the swimmers went in the water! The next film, Jaws II, had promotional trailers warning:  “Just when you thought it was safe to go back in the water.” But at least you were safe on dry land.

Poster: Jaws Film: Jaws

Poster: Jaws II

In 1975, the first in a series of SNL sketches took away that last safe place – dry land.  The Saturday Night Live writers introduced the world to the “Land Shark” — a predator that could strike on land or sea.   In each sketch, a city-dweller would hear a knock at the door and a voice would call out, “telegram,” “plumber,” etc.  When the door was opened, in plunged the “Land Shark” (or a giant foam rubber version of the “Land Shark”).

Saturday Night Live/SNL

Land Shark” [image][video]

Like a few other fictional villains, the “Land Shark” developed a real life copycat, the “Land Catfish.” Introduced to France’s River Tarn, about 20 years ago, a common species of catfish was starving as its food of choice, crayfish, decreased in numbers.  Most species would have the good graces to continue to starve and die out.  Not these catfish.  Instead, they made a different choice and “learned” to do something no member of their species has ever done before – catch and eat land animals.

Hovering in the water, near flocks of pigeons, these catfish wait for one of the birds to get “too close” to the water.  Then, these (sometimes, four-foot long) cats jump out of the water, grab a pigeon and take it home for dinner.

Fisherman, who saw the Land Catfish at work, found it – really creepy.  And, so do I.  Underwater creatures intentionally jumping out of the water to grab some land animal, drag it back into the water, and eat it?  I’ve seen stuff like this in old horror movies!

“Catfish grabs pigeon” [video]

Catfish hunt pigeons in France

Oh, Dear God No: Here Are Some Catfish Hunting And Eating Pigeons

Study of these Land Catfish revealed another upsetting fact.  Those catfish that learned to hunt “land prey” developed a taste for land animals.  These fish stopped eating their usual crayfish and started eating almost nothing but land animals.   Being a land animal, myself, I don’t find any of this comforting . . . at all!

Also, in the last year, we found out about another sea creature that just won’t stay in the sea.  A few months ago, an octopus was caught crawling out of the ocean and leisurely shopping for snacks on a California beach.  But, unlike the catfish, the octopus didn’t suddenly “choose” to start hunting on land in the last week or so.

Octopus Walks on Land at Fitzgerald Marine Reserve

Octopus crawls out of water and walks on dry land

Octopus experts say that octopuses have always done this.  These creatures jump out of the water onto land all the time.  (I don’t know that I wanted to know that.)  The only thing that was unusual was that the octopus starring in the video was shopping on the beach during the day.  Usually, octopuses crawl out of the sea and go trolling for a meal on land — in the dark of night.  Well, that’s the end of my evening strolls on the beach!  But, it gets worse.  Octopuses even jump onto crab-fishing boats, climb into barrels of crabs (their favorite food), and pig-out.

Land-Walking Octopus Explained

Just when you thought it was safe to go near the water.

But just as this “year of discovery” of the real Land Sharks was ending, another safe place was invaded by predator fish.

Welcome the “Air Shark.”

A Tigerfish was caught on video jumping out of the water . . . into the air . . . and catching birds in flight.  The Tiger is just the sort of fish you don’t want jumping out of the water and catching passing . . . animals.  Who knows what else it might catch when it’s up there — water-skiers, parasailers, . . .  small aircraft?

Fish Can Catch and Eat Flying Birds [African Tigerfish]

Called the “African piranha” the Tigerfish has no winning smile, but it sure has a toothy grin.  [image]  Hoping for some comfort, I looked up the tigerfish on Wikipedia.  After saying that game fisherman call these fish “the African piranhas,” the entry goes on, reassuringly, to say that the two fish aren’t so much alike because the tigerfish and piranha are two different species.  (I sigh with relief.)

But, then, the entry goes on to say that tigerfish and piranhas do have just a few things in common.   Both have “interlocking, razor-sharp teeth”, “are … extremely aggressive … predators”, and “often hunt in groups.”  Oh, don’t let me forget to mention that each member of  the tigerfish “pack” weighs about 110 pounds.  And another thing, tigerfish have been known to attack humans.

Really makes you want to book that ski vacation at Africa’s Lake Malawi, doesn’t it?

Tigerfish

Unlike the Land Catfish, the “Air Shark”/Tigerfish didn’t just choose to start hunting flying birds — yesterday.  There have been stories of this fish jumping out the water and grabbing birds in flight since the 1940’s.  But, like the octopus’s strolls on the beach, the flight of the tigerfish was never caught on video until this year.

Nico Smit, director of the Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management at North-West University in Potchefstroom, South Africa, was part of the team that caught the “Air Shark” catching a quick bite.  He said that the whole “event,” (meal for the fish, “big sleep” for the bird) happens so fast that it took a while before the researchers were sure what they were seeing.

It didn’t just happen fast.  It happened often.  They saw 20 “catches” the first day and about 300 during the next two weeks.  The “event” was caught on video for the first time by team member Francois Jacobs.  The team’s findings were published in the Journal of Fish Biology and Nature.com.

Tigerfish catches bird video shocks scientists worldwide

National Geographic

With this report, yet another element of our environment, the air, is threatened by killer fish.  I can hear someone say, “Yeah, but unless you’re a bird flying over a lake in Africa you’re safe.”  Well, 20 years ago, French pigeons thought they were safe from catfish attacks on the shore of the River Tarn.  Then, one fine day, a catfish just “chose” to become a Land Catfish and start jumping out of the water, onto land, to grab and eat the nearest animal.  You wouldn’t have wanted to be the next unlucky pigeon that went to get a drink of water from the river!

This “choosing” thing worries me.  Now, animals just “choose” to eat completely different things than they’ve been eating for the last few thousand years.  Just a couple of weeks after I heard about the Land Catfish, I visited an evening holiday light display at the Missouri Botanical Garden.  In the freezing cold, I walked along the dark paths admiring the beautiful lights.  I thought back to the Garden, in the summer, with giant koi fish in the large pond surrounded by the Japanese Garden.  You can feed these large fish as they gather around the bridges and shoreline to gobble up food pellets.

Gee, I thought, those fish must have rough time under the frozen ice.  They go for months with little food.  I bet they get really hungry.  Looking out into the pitch blackness a few yards off the path, I wondered how close I was to the water.   No, I reassured myself.  I’m safe.  After all . . . koi fish couldn’t be dangerous.  These fish look like giant goldfish.  The only difference is some have those whisker-looking things.  You know, . . . like . . .  catfish!?  Those clever, predatory, and hungry river-beasts that are scarfing down pigeons in France!

I stuck to the paths farthest from the water.

Missouri Botanical Garden

Koi Fish [image]

I didn’t like this new trend toward “choice” with fish deciding to leave the water and eat anything that happened by.  But I didn’t think it was a too big a problem until I stumbled across a story about another sea animal.  One that jumps out of the water regularly and sails through the air.  Everyone says this creature just jumps out of the water and dives back into the water without “eating an in-flight meal.” But, now, I know that sea creatures can just “choose” to change their feeding habits any time.

Jun Yamamoto of Hokkaido University and his team were tracking squid in the ocean east of Tokyo when 20 of these ten-legged creatures flew out of the water for a distance of about 30 meters.  They like to fly.  They spread out their fins and legs like wings to stay in the air.  They’ve even been seen flapping their fins to stay in the air a little longer!

Same story, different day – there were rumors about flying squid for years, but this was the first time they’ve been caught on film.  Yamamoto said, “[W]e should no longer consider squid as things that live only in the water.” [!]

Welcome the Air Squid.

Flying Squid [image] [video]

Squids ‘can fly 100 feet through the air’

Everyone’s worried about the safety of the flying squid.  Birds might eat them while they’re flying through the air.  Sure, but what happens to the birds when the flying squid decide they’re hungry?   “Oh, but these flying squid don’t eat birds or . . . (glup) . . . water-skiers.”  Of course, not.  Not yet.  Not until, like the French Land Catfish, they “choose” to start eating birds, people, . . . small aerial drones.  Who knows?

Some will say, “But only small squid fly.”  “It’s not like the flying squid were those giant 12 foot long, 330 pound squid that live deep in the ocean.”  Correction: Just because they’ve never been caught on video, doesn’t mean giant squid don’t fly.  And, even if they’ve never flown before, what make you so sure they won’t choose to fly in the future.  Suppose they do.   And suppose they choose to flap their fins so fast that they start flying like birds.  That’s all we need — giant flying squid trolling the air above the water like a bunch a pterodactyls.

First, there was Jaws with its great white shark.

Don’t go in the water!

Then, the Land Shark “inspired” imitators — the Land Catfish and Land Octopus.

Don’t go near the water!

Finally, the Tigerfish becomes the “Air Shark.”

Don’t fly above the water!

The End?

M Grossmann of Hazelwood, Missouri

& Belleville, Illinois

About the Author

Best of the Thursday’s

Bees Seek New Careers – Tired of Sweat-Shop Apiaries and CCD?

Meet the “Air Shark” – Tigerfish Catch Birds in Flight

What is a “Blood Moon”?

Dance Talkin’ — How the Bees Say It

The Moon — Magnet for Controversy and Strife

What’s in a Robot Name? IRNG — Imaginative Robot Name Gap

What Do the Birds Think?

A Different Flavor? How Smart is an Octopus?

The Giant Alligator Snapping Turtle – the Perfect Pet!?

Robo-Cheetah & Her Little Sister the Wildcat

The Bumblebee and Robo-Snake on Mars – The Facts

Toy Robot Spiders — As If the Real Thing Weren’t Enough

Australia’s Megafauna — The Forgotten Giants of Prehistory

Finally, A Robot Spider You Can Ride!?

Mark Grossmann: Meet the “Air Shark” – Tigerfish Catch Birds in Flight

Please click title to read: Meet the “Air Shark” – Tigerfish Catch Birds in Flight

by

M Grossmann of Hazelwood, Missouri

& Belleville, Illinois

About the Author

Best of the Thursday’s

Bees Seek New Careers – Tired of Sweat-Shop Apiaries and CCD?

Meet the “Air Shark” – Tigerfish Catch Birds in Flight

What is a “Blood Moon”?

Dance Talkin’ — How the Bees Say It

The Moon — Magnet for Controversy and Strife

What’s in a Robot Name? IRNG — Imaginative Robot Name Gap

What Do the Birds Think?

A Different Flavor? How Smart is an Octopus?

The Giant Alligator Snapping Turtle – the Perfect Pet!?

Robo-Cheetah & Her Little Sister the Wildcat

The Bumblebee and Robo-Snake on Mars – The Facts

Toy Robot Spiders — As If the Real Thing Weren’t Enough

Australia’s Megafauna — The Forgotten Giants of Prehistory

Finally, A Robot Spider You Can Ride!?

Mark Grossmann: The Moon – Magnet for Controversy and Strife

Please click on title to read: The Moon — Magnet for Controversy and Strife

M Grossmann of Hazelwood, Missouri & Belleville, Illinois

2 January 2014

About the Author

Best of the Thursday’s

Bees Seek New Careers – Tired of Sweat-Shop Apiaries and CCD?

Meet the “Air Shark” – Tigerfish Catch Birds in Flight

What is a “Blood Moon”?

Dance Talkin’ — How the Bees Say It

The Moon — Magnet for Controversy and Strife

What’s in a Robot Name? IRNG — Imaginative Robot Name Gap

What Do the Birds Think?

A Different Flavor? How Smart is an Octopus?

The Giant Alligator Snapping Turtle – the Perfect Pet!?

Robo-Cheetah & Her Little Sister the Wildcat

The Bumblebee and Robo-Snake on Mars – The Facts

Toy Robot Spiders — As If the Real Thing Weren’t Enough

Australia’s Megafauna — The Forgotten Giants of Prehistory

Finally, A Robot Spider You Can Ride!?

Mark Grossmann: Dance Talkin’ — How The Bees Say it

Please click the title link to read: Dance Talkin’ — How the Bees Say It

by

Mark Grossmann

of Hazelwood, Missouri

& Belleville, Illinois

About the Author

Best of the Thursday’s

Bees Seek New Careers – Tired of Sweat-Shop Apiaries and CCD?

Meet the “Air Shark” – Tigerfish Catch Birds in Flight

What is a “Blood Moon”?

Dance Talkin’ — How the Bees Say It

The Moon — Magnet for Controversy and Strife

What’s in a Robot Name? IRNG — Imaginative Robot Name Gap

What Do the Birds Think?

A Different Flavor? How Smart is an Octopus?

The Giant Alligator Snapping Turtle – the Perfect Pet!?

Robo-Cheetah & Her Little Sister the Wildcat

The Bumblebee and Robo-Snake on Mars – The Facts

Toy Robot Spiders — As If the Real Thing Weren’t Enough

Australia’s Megafauna — The Forgotten Giants of Prehistory

Finally, A Robot Spider You Can Ride!?

Mark Grossmann: Bees Seek New Careers – Tired of Sweat-Shop Apiaries and CCD?

Please click the title link to read: Bees Seek New Careers – Tired of Sweat-Shop Apiaries and CCD?

by

Mark Grossmann

of Hazelwood, Missouri

& Belleville, Illinois

About the Author

Best of the Thursday’s

Bees Seek New Careers – Tired of Sweat-Shop Apiaries and CCD?

Meet the “Air Shark” – Tigerfish Catch Birds in Flight

What is a “Blood Moon”?

Dance Talkin’ — How the Bees Say It

The Moon — Magnet for Controversy and Strife

What’s in a Robot Name? IRNG — Imaginative Robot Name Gap

What Do the Birds Think?

A Different Flavor? How Smart is an Octopus?

The Giant Alligator Snapping Turtle – the Perfect Pet!?

Robo-Cheetah & Her Little Sister the Wildcat

The Bumblebee and Robo-Snake on Mars – The Facts

Toy Robot Spiders — As If the Real Thing Weren’t Enough

Australia’s Megafauna — The Forgotten Giants of Prehistory

Finally, A Robot Spider You Can Ride!?

Mark Grossmann: The Nano Hummingbird – The Original Bird ‘Bot

12 December 2013

[Nano Hummer Video]

On 17 February 2011, DARPA announced the development of the first fully functional robotic bird. [1]  The “Nano Hummingbird” or, as it is also less imaginatively called, the “Nano Air Vehicle” (“NAV”), was the successful result of a project started in 2006 by AeroVironment, Inc. under the direction of DARPA. [1] Robots, by definition, must “do work.”  And the Nano-Hummer was the first fully functional bird-drone designed and able to perform surveillance and reconnaissance missions.

This robotic hummingbird can remain aloft for 11 minutes and attain a speed of 11 mph. [1]   With a skeleton of hollow carbon-fiber rods wrapped in fiber mesh, coated in a polyvinyl fluoride film, [5] and carrying “batteries, motors, and communications systems; as well as the video camera payload,” the robo-hummer weighs just .67 ounces. [1]

Designed to be deployed in urban environments or on battlefields, this drone is can “perch on windowsills or power lines” and even “enter buildings to observe and its surroundings” while relaying a continuous video back to its “pilot.” [video] [1]

In terms of appearance, the Nano-Hummer was, and is, quite like a hummingbird.    Although larger than the typical hummingbird, Nano-Hummer, is well within the size range of the species and is, actually, smaller than the largest of real hummingbirds. [1]   With a facade both shaped and colored to resemble the real bird, the Nano-Hummer presents the viewer with a remarkable likeness of a hummingbird. [1]

The Nano-Hummer isn’t stealth in the sense of evading radar.  Nor is it “cryptic,” that type of camouflage that blends, or disappears, into the surrounding terrain.  Rather, with the appearance of a hummingbird, the designers used a type of camouflage called “mimesis,” also termed “masquerade,” as concealment.  A camouflaged object is said to be “masqueraded” when the object can be clearly seen, but looks like something else, which is of no special interest to the observer.  And such camouflage is important to a mini-drone with the primary purpose of surveillance and reconnaissance. [1]

Designing this drone on the “hummingbird model,” however, was not done only for the purpose of camouflage.  The project’s objective included biomimicry, that is, biologically inspired engineering. [8] With the hummingbird, its amazingly diverse flight maneuvers were the object of imitation.  However, UAV’s head researcher, Matt Keennon, admits that a perfect replica of what “nature has done” was too daunting. [5]  For example, the Nano-Hummer only beats its wings 20 times a second, which is slow motion compared to the real hummingbird’s 80 beats per second. [video] [5]

Whatever the technical shortfalls, this bird-bot replicates much of the real hummingbird’s flight performance. [5]  Not only can it perform rolls and backflips [video] but, most important of all, it can hover like the real thing. [video] [5]  Part of the importance of the ability hover relates to its reconnaissance and surveillance functions.  Hovering allows the video camera to select and observe stationary targets.  However, the “hover” of both hummingbirds and bees attracts so much attention from developers of drone technology because it assures success in the most difficult flight maneuver of all — landing.  In fact, landing is the most complex part of flight, and the maneuver most likely to result in accident or disaster.

When landing, a flying object must attain the slowest speed possible before touching down.  Hovering resolves the problem neatly by assuring that the robot can stop in midair and, therefore, touch the ground or perch as zero speed.  Observe the relatively compact helicopter landing port in contrast to the long landing strip required by an airplane which must maintain forward motion when airborne.

The drone has a remarkable range of movement in flight much like the real hummingbird. [1] Nano-Hummer “can climb and descend vertically; fly sideways left and right; forward and backward; rotate clockwise and counter-clockwise; and hover in mid-air.” [1]  Both propulsion and altitude control are entirely provided by the drone’s flapping wings. [video] [1]

This remote controlled mini-drone can be maneuvered by the “pilot” without direct visual observation using the video stream alone. [1] With its small camera, this drone can relay back video images of its location. [1] The camera angle is defined by the drone’s pitch.  In forward motion, the camera provides a continuous view of the ground.  Hovering provides the best camera angle for surveying rooms. [video] [5]

To DARPA, it was particularly important that this drone demonstrate the ability to hover in a 5 mph side-wind without drift of more than one meter. [1]  The CIA’s “insectothopter,” a robotic dragonfly was developed in the 1970’s. [image] [3] This unmanned aerial vehicle “was the size of a dragonfly, and was hand-painted to look like one.” [3]  Powered by a small gasoline engine, the insectothopter proved unusable due to its inability to withstand even moderate wind gusts. [video] [3]

The Nano-Hummingbird was named by Time Magazine as one of the 50 best inventions of 2011 [4] and has paved the way for the development of a whole generation of bird inspired ‘bots, including Prioria’s “Maverick,” [image] [video] and, the even more “bird-like,” Robo-Raven, which is still in development by the Army Research Laboratory. [image 1] [video] [video] Also, the development of this first small bird-bot brought the U.S. Air Force one step closer to one of the goals on its wish list: “flocks of small drones.” [7]

A flock of small drones sounds really cool – as long as the flock isn’t after me.

M Grossmann of Hazelwood, Missouri

& Belleville, Illinois

About the Author

Best of the Thursday’s

Bees Seek New Careers – Tired of Sweat-Shop Apiaries and CCD?

Meet the “Air Shark” – Tigerfish Catch Birds in Flight

What is a “Blood Moon”?

Dance Talkin’ — How the Bees Say It

The Moon — Magnet for Controversy and Strife

What’s in a Robot Name? IRNG — Imaginative Robot Name Gap

What Do the Birds Think?

A Different Flavor? How Smart is an Octopus?

The Giant Alligator Snapping Turtle – the Perfect Pet!?

Robo-Cheetah & Her Little Sister the Wildcat

The Bumblebee and Robo-Snake on Mars – The Facts

Toy Robot Spiders — As If the Real Thing Weren’t Enough

Australia’s Megafauna — The Forgotten Giants of Prehistory

Finally, A Robot Spider You Can Ride!?

Mark Grossmann: Toy Robot Spiders — As If the Real Things Weren’t Enough

Please click the title link to read: Toy Robot Spiders — As If the Real Thing Weren’t Enough

by

Mark Grossmann

of Hazelwood, Missouri

& Belleville, Illinois

About the Author

Best of the Thursday’s

Bees Seek New Careers – Tired of Sweat-Shop Apiaries and CCD?

Meet the “Air Shark” – Tigerfish Catch Birds in Flight

What is a “Blood Moon”?

Dance Talkin’ — How the Bees Say It

The Moon — Magnet for Controversy and Strife

What’s in a Robot Name? IRNG — Imaginative Robot Name Gap

What Do the Birds Think?

A Different Flavor? How Smart is an Octopus?

The Giant Alligator Snapping Turtle – the Perfect Pet!?

Robo-Cheetah & Her Little Sister the Wildcat

The Bumblebee and Robo-Snake on Mars – The Facts

Toy Robot Spiders — As If the Real Thing Weren’t Enough

Australia’s Megafauna — The Forgotten Giants of Prehistory

Finally, A Robot Spider You Can Ride!?